‘Moll Flanders: The Felon as Lawyer’, Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 1998.

See Felon as Lawyer for full article.

‘Defoe and the Criminal Lawyer: Eighteenth Century Ideologies of Justice’, Sites of Discourse – Public and Private Spheres – Legal Culture, 2001.

See Criminal as Lawyer for full article.

‘Clarissa Harlowe, Pleasant Rawlins & Eighteenth-Century Discourses of Law’, Eighteenth-Century Novel, 2001.

See Clarissa & Pleasant Rawlins for full article.

‘Radcliffe’s Inquisition and Eighteenth-Century English Legal Practice’, Eighteenth-Century Novel, 2003, ed. A.Rivero.

See Radcliffe’s Inquisition for full article.

‘Clarissa: Saint or Sinner? Richardson and Eighteenth-Century Ideologies of Virtue’, The Glass, 1999.

The eighteenth century, no less than the twentieth, was happy to espouse the ethos of salvation by works. Focusing on the moral ego, the idea of ‘virtue’ supported flattering notions of self; it was a religion of the respectable, which manifested itself in moral pragmatism, and shunned what it perceived to be theological imponderables. There was of course another, less comfortable vision: ‘For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God’, a doctrine not of self-validation through promotion of a public moral persona but of vicarious grace, a doctrine which precluded self-elevation because it underlined man’s eternal inadequacies. It is this which Richardson presents in Clarissa (1747-8), a narrative structured around the spiritual progress of its eponymous heroine, perhaps the most famous and certainly the most controversial Christian figure in eighteenth-century fiction. Clarissa enables Richardson to highlight and comment on issues from a Christian perspective and by implication, to challenge fundamental aspects of eighteenth-century culture and behaviour. As Eaves and Kimpel point out, ‘Clarissa is unconventional in taking seriously the doctrines her society [only] professed to believe’.

See ‘Clarissa: Saint or Sinner?’ for full article.

‘”Minerva’s favourite Sholar”: Penelope Aubin Reconsidered’, Innovation and Tradition in the Eighteenth Century, 2002.

See Penelope Aubin Reconsidered for full article.